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Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period mainly due to insulin deficiency or resistance. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, and weight loss. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can comprise diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications consist of cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.

Endocrinology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of the endocrine system, hormones, and its disorders. It also involves the study of growth and development, metabolism, digestion, tissue function and various other behavioral factors which are influenced by hormones. 

The most common types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes (also known as diabetes mellitus) is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack and destroy the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas i.e., beta cells. The loss of insulin leads to the inability to regulate blood sugar levels. It can occur both by genetically and environmentally. Patients are usually treated with insulin-replacement therapy.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). It starts as insulin resistance, which means our body can’t use insulin efficiently. Factors may include genetics, lack of exercise, and being overweight.

Gestational diabetes is due to blocking of insulin hormones produced during pregnancy.

High levels of sugars or glucose in the blood lead to such a chronic condition called diabetes mellitus. High glucose in the blood may cause eye damage, nerve damage, and kidney damage, loss of sensation in sexual organs (sexual dysfunction). Diabetes increases the risk of various cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery diseaseheart attackheart stroke and narrowing of arteries which reduces the blood flow through the arteries. In addition to this, people with diabetes have more chances to develop infections that may lead to allergies. Diabetes is the main cause for cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure, and blindness. Diabetes can also cause foot ulcers and hearing problems, people with diabetes have hearing impairment commonly.


The most common type of diabetes which occurs in children is type 1 diabetes. It is a common chronic childhood diseases, occurring in 1 in 350 children by age 18; the incidence has recently been increasing, particularly in children less than 5 yr. Although type 1 can occur at any age, it naturally expresses between age 4 yr and 6 yr or between 10 yr and 14 yr. Type 2 diabetes, once rare in children, has been increasing in frequency in parallel with the increase in childhood obesity (in children). It typically manifests after puberty, with the highest rate between age 15 yr and 19 yr (in adolescents).

Heart disease is a complication that may affect people having diabetes if their condition is not managed well for a long period of time. High blood pressure (Hyperglycemia), which characterizes diabetes, in combination with free fatty acids within the blood can alter the character of blood vessels, and this can lead to heart disease. Vascular disorders include coronary artery disease (CAD), retinopathy (damage to the vision) and nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), and heart stroke. Diabetes also affects the heart muscle which causes both systolic and diastolic heart failure. 

One of the most significant features of diabetes management is the self-management of diabetes which can be effectively achieved, and complications prevented with the help and support of the nursing team. Diabetes specialist nurses play an essential role in screening diabetic persons, detecting early onset of diabetes, considering nutritional needs of the patient, promoting self-management, providing prevention advice, spreading awareness on diabetes and providing health education. It is very necessary for nurses to be well educated, trained and skilled sufficiently to be able to proficiently deliver care, support self-management and provide advice to diabetic persons.

Cardiology is a branch of internal medicine concerned with disorders of the heart. It deals with the diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases such as congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, electrophysiology, heart failure, and vascular disease. Cardiac electrophysiology, echocardiography, nuclear cardiology, and interventional cardiology are the fields included by cardiology.

Heart disease describes a variety of disorders that affect the heart. Diseases under heart disease include blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and congenital heart defects. Heart disease term is usually used interchangeably with cardiovascular disease. It commonly refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that may result in heart failure, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as effect in valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease.

Hypertension is medical term used for High blood pressure, and it is a serious medical condition that refers to a cardiac disease. The pressure of the blood being pumped through the arteries is higher during hypertension. It is of two types of high blood pressure primary and secondary. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the blood vessels walls, and the magnitude of this force only depends on the cardiac output and the resistance of the blood vessels. The hypertension generally does not cause any symptoms but the long term hypertension causes a major risk factor for heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, and chronic kidney disease. Treating high blood pressure take a pronged approach including, medication, exercise and diet changes.

The word “congenital” means existing at birth. Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) are the most common type of birth defect. It can vary from mild (such as a small hole in the heart) to severe (such as absent or poorly formed parts of the heart). Types of congenital heart disease are Atrial Septal Defect, Atrioventricular Septal Defect, Pulmonary atresiaTetralogy of Fallot, Ventricular Septal Defect, and Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. It can be diagnosed during pregnancy using fetal echocardiogram.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels. It's commonly related with a build-up of fatty deposits inside the arteries (atherosclerosis) and an increased risk of blood clots. Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque forms inside our arteries (blood vessels). CVD is one of the main reasons for death and disability. It includes coronary artery diseases such as angina and myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischaemic attack, peripheral arterial disease, and aortic disease.

Pediatric cardiology is concerned with diseases or disorders of the heart in the growing and developing individual. Expertise in heart disease is called cardiologist.  Pediatric cardiologist is a pediatrician who also needs a detailed grounding in general pediatrics, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It is also called Pediatric Cardiopulmonary disease which involves the childhood disorder includes heart and lungs complications.

Cardiac nursing is a registered nurse who focuses to work with patients who suffer from several disorders of the cardiovascular system. They work in many different environments, including coronary care units (CCUs), intensive care units (ICUs), cardiac catheterization, operating theaters, heart rehabilitation centers, clinical research, cardiac surgery departments, unstable angina, cardiomyopathy, and cardiovascular intensive care units, under the direction of a cardiologist. Cardiac nurses also perform post-operative caution on a surgical unit, stress test evaluations, cardiac monitoring, vascular monitoring, and health assessments.

Obesity can increase the risk of stroke due to swelling or inflammation caused by excess fatty tissue. It leads to trouble in blood flow and an increased risk of blockage, both of which can cause strokes. Excess fatty tissue has a significant association with risk of stroke/transient ischemic attack (i.e., mini-stroke), independent of other vascular risk factors. Individuals who are affected by obesity have a greater chance of suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, known as sleep apnea. Those with sleep apnea have a greater risk of high blood pressure or hypertension, irregular heart rhythms, and heart stroke. Diabetes is an individual risk factor for stroke. To decrease the risk of diabetes and stroke by maintaining a healthy weight by eating well and being exercised and physically active.

Nutrition forms an important role in diabetes and heart care. It helps in maintaining a healthy weight which controls various diseases such as hypertension (high blood pressure), cardiovascular diseasescholesterol, diabetes, and other endocrine-related diseases. By balancing all the nutrients in the proper amount will help in maintaining a healthy weight. The objective of such nutritional therapies is to reach and retain optimal metabolic outcomes by keeping the blood glucose level as close to the normal range as possible. Dietary fibres also form an essential part of the diabetic diet as these moderates how the body digests and helps control blood sugar levels.

Diabetes medications are a common form of treatment for a person with diabetes. There are many different types of diabetes medicines or anti-diabetic drugs, and this includes insulin, which has its own area within the site. While every drug is unique in the way it works to help patients with diabetes retain their condition under control. The way in which they are directed can also vary, with some medicines taken orally and others injected directly into the blood. Most diabetes drugs are designed for people having type 2 diabetes who are incapable to control their blood sugar levels through strict diet and exercise alone. While insulin is the drug of choice for treating type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes and Heart diseases is a serious condition which still doesn't have a cure which makes new research, treatment, and management techniques an essential requirement. Over the past years, there have been considerable breakthroughs in understanding and preventing diabetes and heart complications. While some research concentrates on generating artificial pancreas or engineering insulin-producing beta cells, some other researches are directed towards discovery of newer and long-term drug molecules, creating more efficient diets and emerging intensive treatment programs. Trends and developments on diabetes and heart research is the need of the hour for fetching excellent management of this serious life-threatening disease. The development of science and technology has perceived the growth of a newer generation of nanomedicine in drugs advance.